Species: M. domestica
The apple (Malus domestica Borkh) is a deciduous fruit tree that belongs to the Rosaceae family, like the pear and the peach.
This species, native to southwest Asia, is cultivated all over the world for its tasty fruits.It prefers temperate to cold climates, with temperatures that are above 15 °C during the growing season and that don’t drop below -20 °C or -25 °C in winter.
Late frosts while the tree is in bloom damage the buds and jeopardize production. Apple trees adapt well to many types of ground but grow best in deep, well drained soil, with neutral pH and a low percentage of active limestone.They reach an average height of around 8 mt and the crowns have a spreading growth habit. The leaves are oval with serrated edges.
The young trees have smooth grey bark, which tends to crack on the older wood of the trunk and the main branches.
The root system only grows in the upper layers of the soil.
The branches bear two types of buds: “vegetative buds” (also known as “wood buds”) and “mixed buds”. The vegetative buds give rise to a shoot that will grow into a branch. The mixed buds develop 5 or 6 flowers grouped in corymbs and 1 or 2 shoots.
The branches are divided according to the type of buds they bear. Those that only bear vegetative buds are called “vegetative branches”.
“Fruit bearing branches” have mixed buds and are divided according to their vigour and type of growth:
There are one-year-old shoots, around 20 cm long, which bear just one mixed bud at the tip.
Spurs, which are very short shoots, around 2 cm long, that have a mixed bud or a vegetative bud at their tip.
Bourses, which are fruiting spurs that have swollen after the previous year's production due to the build up of reserve substances, they can bear either a mixed bud or a vegetative bud.
Spur systems are short, swollen woody formations, created by a sequence of bourses and spurs that have borne fruit year after year.
The flowers, which have 5 white or pinkish petals, appear in spring, about 3 weeks after the buds open. This plant is self-sterile, that is to say it doesn’t produce fruit if pollinated by itself or by trees of the same variety.
For this reason different varieties need to be planted together in order to ensure a satisfactory harvest.
The apple is a false (or accessory) fruit, technically known as a “pome”: the actual fruit is the core, which normally has 10 seeds.
Each variety has its own particular shape, size, colour and time required to mature; generally speaking the pome is rounded with a cavity in the upper part (in which the pedicel is inserted) and another one in the lower part.
The apple is one of the fruits most commonly grown and appreciated worldwide, it can be eaten raw, cooked or dried but also used as an ingredient in confectionary. Its juice is used to make drinks (cider) and seasonings (apple vinegar).
|Scientific name||Malus domestica|
|Recommended Seeding||In Pots|
|Distance between rows||400 cm / 450 cm|
|Distance between rows||150 cm / 200 cm|
|Average growing time||years / years|
|Min. Temperature (C°)||-25 °c|
|Can be grown in pots||yes|
A variety of Australian origin, discovered at the beginning of the last century by Maria Ann Smith.
The tree is has very vigorous growth and is prone to alternate bearing (one year it produces an abundant yield of fruit while the following year the yield is poor).
The fruits are large and round. When ripe, the skin is green with a great number of pale lenticels. The flesh is off-white and has a sharp taste.
For this plant the recommended pollinators are "Fuji", "Gala" and "Golden Delicious".
An early variety originating from New Zealand, discovered around 1920; currently one of the most popular and widely eaten throughout the world. It’s a tree that produces an abundant yield and can be cultivated fairly easily, for this reason it’s also suitable for less expert growers. Unfortunately the plant is sensitive to apple scab and canker, and, if the harvest is delayed, the fruit can tend to split open. The apples are of a good size, red with lighter streaks. The flesh is pale and has a highly appreciated sugary flavour.
The pollinators recommended for this variety are "Fuji", "Golden Delicious", "Granny Smith" and "Morgenduft".
A variety of Japanese origin, a tree with a very high yield and average growth. It is alternate bearing, and in order to maintain a balanced harvest the fruits need to be thinned out correctly. The apples are medium-large and round, their skin is red and slightly rusty coloured. The flesh is white, firm and very sweet.
The pollinators recommended for this variety are "Gala", "Granny Smith" and "Morgenduft".
This is a late variety, the trees have a high yield and are easy to take care of, and therefore they are also recommended for less expert growers. The apples are large and round. The skin is particularly thick, red and has various pale coloured streaks. The flesh is of a light colour and has a slightly bitter taste. It is one of the best apples to use for cooking.
The pollinators recommended for this variety are "Fuji", "Gala", "Golden Delicious" and "Granny Smith".
A variety of North American origin, the tree has average growth and is prone to alternate bearing (one year it has an abundant yield of fruit while the following year the yield is poor).
The apples are rounded, slightly asymmetrical and a good size. The skin is thick, bright red and has various pale coloured streaks. The flesh is off-white and has a pleasant sweet flavour.
The pollinators recommended for this variety are "Gala", "Golden Delicious" and "Granny Smith".
A variety of American origin, which is believed to be a hybrid of “Golden reinette" and “Grimes golden”.
The tree is has average growth and is prone to alternate bearing (one year it produces an abundant yield of fruit while the following year the yield is poor).
The fruits are round, of a good size and are yellow with rust-coloured lenticels.
The skin is very thin and, for this reason, sensitive to bruising. The flesh is off-white, with a particularly sweet flavour. The fruit keeps well for a long time, and for this reason it can be found on sale all year round. It’s one of the most popular apples worldwide and is therefore widely grown.
The pollinators recommended for this variety are "Fuji", "Gala", "Granny Smith" and "Morgenduft".
Species: M. domestica
Species: M. domestica